Shamor and Zakhor
Parashat Yitro

Ethan Tucker

Competing Frames for Shabbat in the Torah and Today. In the Torah, there are two divergent formulations of the Ten Commandments—one in Exodus and another in Deuteronomy. The difference between them regarding Shabbat is particularly striking: Exodus maintains that the goal of Shabbat is “זכור”/“be mindful”, and links its observance to the Creation of the world in seven days; while Deuteronomy begins with the word “שמור”/“guard”, and grounds Shabbat in being freed from oppression in Egypt. And yet our tradition insists that they were said “בדיבור אחד”/“in one utterance”. What could this assertion mean? And why is it so important to Hazal?

Full Essay

Key sources (shiur recorded in 2014)
(audio/mpeg, 48.79MB)

Summary and Dvar Torah
(audio/mpeg, 14MB)

Class given at LimmudNY 2014
(Video)
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